پایان نامه با واژگان کلیدی idioms، University، In، opaque

th participants of different age levels.
As the present study examined the effect of etymological elaboration on the knowledge of opaque idioms, further research can be carried out on other specific types of idioms such as, transparent, decomposable, or non-decomposable. In the same vein, further research can be done to compare the effect of these strategies on other areas of language such as vocabulary in general, proverbs, collocation, and so on.
The present study was carried out with intermediate female learners, and it can be replicated with male learners at different levels of proficiency.
5.5. Interview
After the treatment, a focus group was conducted with half of the participants who were randomly selected from each target group under study. The researcher asked the students’ opinions about the two different types of treatments that were instructed to the participants during the study. One group received definitions of the opaque idioms with contextual sentences and the other group received etymological information of the opaque idioms with contextual sentences.
Here parts of students’ comments from both groups are noted:
Control group:
1- Learning opaque idioms through their definitions was not a pleasant job. It was as traditional methods of learning vocabularies and other materials of textbooks and memorizing them. This method did not motivate me to learn enthusiastically.
2- After learning the definitions of the opaque idioms at the right time, the definitions of them were not kept in my mind and after a while I forgot them.
3- Without knowing the story of an opaque idiom, learning it was a pointless and dead job. Like living for no reason!

Experimental group:
1- Learning etymological information of opaque idioms were so exciting for me and I was really satisfied with my knowledge of the opaque idioms that I knew the origin of some high frequency idioms.
2- Exploring the origins of opaque idioms was really a pleasant experience and it opened a new window to me and I could understand the culture of a foreign language.
3- Etymological information of target idioms were stuck to my mind and I can repeat them over and over and I could tell the stories behind each opaque idiom to my friends that did not have this knowledge. I can show off to my classmates.

References
Abel, B. (2003). English idioms in the first language and second language lexicon: A
dual representation approach. Second Language Research, 19, 329-358

Bagheri, M.S., &Fazel, I. (2010). Effects of etymological elaboration on the EFL
learners’ comprehension and retention of idioms. Journal of Pan-Pacific
Association of Applied Linguistics 14 (1), 45-55.

Baleghizadeh, S. &MohammadBagheri, M. (2012).The effect of etymology elaboration on EFL learners’ comprehension and retention of idioms.The Southeast Asian Journal ofEnglish Language Studies, 18 (1), 23-32.

Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2002). A new starting point? Investigating formulaic use and
input in future expression. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 189-198

Basanta. C. P. (2004). Pedagogic aspects of the design and content of an online course
for the development of lexical competence: ADELEX. ReCALL,16 (1), 20-40.

Bobrow, S., & Bell, S. (1973). On catching on to idiomatic expression. Memory &
Cognition, 1, 343-346

Boers, F. &Demecheleer, M. (1997). A few metaphorical models in economic
discourse. In W. A. Liebert, G. Redeker, & L. Waugh, Discourse and perspective
in cognitive linguistics, 115-129. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Boers, F. (2001) Remembering figurative idioms by hypothesising about their origins. Prospect 16: 35-43.

Boers F, Demecheleer M. July 2001. Measuring the impact of cross cultural differences on learners’ comprehension of imageable idioms: ELT Journal, 55/3: 1-8.

Boers, F., Eyckmans, J., &Strenger, H. (2007).Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of etymology: more than mere mnemonics. Language Teaching Research,11(1), 43-62.

Boers, F. (2000). Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied Linguistics
21: 553-571
Boers, F. &Demecheleer, M. (2001). Measuring the impact of cross-cultural
differences on learners’ comprehension of imaginable idioms. ELT Journal, 55,
255-262

Boers, F., Demecheleer, M., &Eyckmans, J. (2004). Etymological elaboration as a
strategy for learning idioms. In P. Bogaards& B. Laufer (Eds). Vocabulary in a
second language: selection, acquisition, and testing,(PP. 53-78). Amsterdam: John
Benjamins.
Bortfeld, H. (2003). Comprehending idioms cross- linguistically. Experimental
Psychology, 50(3), 217-230.
Bourque, J. 2014. Figurative meaning: Explanations and examples; literal vs. Figurative meaning Jeremiah Bourque’s Blog. 2014.

Bulut, T. &Celik-Yazici, Y. (2004). Idiom processing in L2: Through rose-colored
glasses. The Reading Matrix,4, 105-116.

Cacciari, C., &Glucksberg, S. (1991). Understanding idiomatic expressions, The contribution of word meanings. In G.B. Simpson (Ed.), Understanding word and sentence (pp.217- 240). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Cacciari C. and P. Tabossi. 1988. The Comprehension of Idioms. Journal of
Memory and Language 27 (6), 668-683.

Cacciari C. and P. Tabossi (Eds.). 1993. Idioms: Processing, structure, and
interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cai, J. (2005). A study on the validity and reliability in CET-4 and CET-6 spoken
English tests. Foreign Language World, China, 2005(4), 66-75

Campbell, F. D. (2004). Delivering an online translation course. Recall, 16 (1),
114-123.

Clark, J. M., &Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education.
Educational Psychology Review, 3, 233-262.

Collins COBUILD dictionary of idioms (1995). London: Harper Collins

Cornell, A(1999). ‘Idioms: An approach to identifying major pitfalls for learners’. IRAL,
37, 1, 1-21

Cooper, T. C. (1999). Processing of idioms by L2 learners of English. TESOL
Quarterly, 33 (2), 233-262.

Cowie, A. P., &Mackin, R. (1975). Oxford dictionary of current idiomatic
English, 1, London: Oxford University Press.

Cowie, A.P. (1998). Phraseological dictionaries: Some East-West comparisons,
Phraseology: Theory, Analysis and Applications. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Craik, F. I. M. & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: a framework for
memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11: 671-684

Deignan, A, D Gabrys and A Solska(1997). ‘Teaching English metaphors using cross linguistic awareness-raising activities’. ELT Journal, 51, 4: 352-60

Duquette, G. (1995). Developing comprehension and interaction skills with idiomatic
expressions. In G. Duquette (Ed.), Second language practice: Classroom
strategies for developing communicative competence (pp. 35-42). Clevedon,
England: Multilingual Matters.

Fernando, C. (1996). Idioms and idiomaticity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fernando, C. &Flavell. (1981). On Idiom: Critical Views and Perspectives. Exeter
Linguistic Studies, Volume 5. Exeter: University of Exeter.

Flavell, L. and Flavell, R.2000: Dictionary of idioms and their origins. London:
Kyle Cathie.

Flores d’Arcais, G. B. (1993). The comprehension and semantic interpretation of
idioms. In C. Cacciari& P. Tabossi, Idioms: Processing, structure, and
interpretation, 79-98. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Grant, L. and
Bauer, L. (2004). Criteria for re-defining idioms: Are we barking up the
wrong tree?. Applied linguistics, 25(1), 38-61

Gibbs, R.W. (1980). Spilling the beans on understanding and memory for idioms in
context. Memory & Cognition, 8, 149-156

Gibbs, R.W. (1984). Literal meaning and psychological theory. Cognitive Science, 8,
275-304

Gibbs, R. W., Nayak, N., & Cutting, C. (1989). How to kick the bucket and not
decompose: Analyzability and idiom processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 576-593

Gibbs. R. W. (1990). Psycholinguistic studies on the conceptual basis of idiomaticity.
Cognitive linguistics, 1, 417-451

Gibbs, R 1993. Why idioms are not dead metaphors. In C. Cacciari& P. Tabossi (Eds).

Gibbs. R. W. (1994). The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and
Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gibbs. R. W. (1995). Idiomaticity and human cognition. In E. Everaert, E. -J. van der
Linden, A. Schenk, & R. Schreuder, Idioms: Structural and psychological
perspectives, 97-116. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Glucksberg, S. (1993). Idiom meanings and allusional content. In Cacciari, C. &
Tabossi, P., Idioms: processing, structure, and interpretation. Hillsdale, 3-26. NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Guo, S. (2008). Differential effects of etymological elaboration and rote memorization
on idiom acquisition in college EFL learners. The Asian EFL Journal, 10( 3),
127-145.

Ilson, R. (1983). Etymological information: can it help our students? ELT Journal 37
(1), 76-82.

Irujo, S. (1986). Don’t put your leg in your mouth: Transfer in the acquisition of
idioms in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 287-304.
Johnson, M 1987. The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination and
reason. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press
K?vecses, Z. and Szab?, P. (1996): Idioms: a view from Cognitive Semantics. Applied
Linguistics 17: 326-55.
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live by. Chicago and London:
University Of Chicago Press

Lakoff, G (1987). Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago/London: Chicago University Press

Laufer, B and J. Hulstijn( 2001). ‘Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement’. Applied Linguistics, 22, 1: 1-26

Lazar, G (1996). ‘Using figurative language to expand students’ vocabulary’. ELT Journal,50, 1, 43-51

Lennon, P (1998). ‘Approaches to the teaching of idiomatic language’. IRAL, 36, 1, 12-30
Levorato, M. C. (1993). The acquisition of idioms and the development of figurative
competence. In C. Cacciari and P. Tabossi (Eds.), Idioms: Processing, Structure, and Interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 101-128.
Liontas,J.I.(1999). Developing a pragmatic methodology of idiomaticity. The comprehension and interpretation of SL vivid phrasal idioms during reading. Un-published doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Liontas, J.I. (2001). That’s all Greek to me! The comprehension of modern Greek phrasal idioms.
Liontas, J.I.(2006).Artificial intelligence and idiomaticity. APAMAIL Journal 6(3),210- 247.
Liu, D. (2002). Metaphor, culture, and worldview: The case of American English and
the Chinese language. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Liu, D. (2003). The Most frequently used spoken American English idioms: A
Corpus Analysis and Its Implications. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), pp. 671-700

Liu, D. (2008). Idioms: Description, Comprehension, Acquisition, and Pedagogy.

Low, G 1988. ‘On teaching metaphor’. Applied Linguistics, 9, 2, 125-47

Lu, J., Yu, C., & Liu, C. (2003). Learning style, learning patterns, and learning
performance in a WebCT-based MIS course. Information & Management 40,
497-507
Makkai, A.1972: Idiom structure in English. The Hague: Mouton.

M?ntyl?, K. 2004. Idioms and language users: the effect of the characteristics
of idioms on their recognition and interpretation by native and non-native speakers of English University of Jyv?skyl?.(May 31, 2005)

Moon, R. (1998). Fixed expressions and idioms in English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Moreno, E. M. G. (2011). The role of etymology in the

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید